Greening the Lectionary

A Theological Response to the Ecological Crisis: Reflections, Liturgy, Reviews, Comment.

Matthew 25:31-46

How would you define a successful life? It is someone who makes their mark, achieves something significant, a book, a symphony, an acting career, a pop song that endures for decades? It is someone who has made lots of money, created a viable business, been able to retire at 30 or 40 or who hasn’t retired at all and has gone on to amass billions? Is it someone at the top of their profession, as a politician, a lawyer, a footballer or athlete? Or someone who has known the secret of happiness, who has enjoyed a contented life filled with pleasure. Perhaps all of these are true, except it appears that, in our Gospel this week, when lives are being judged by the supreme authority different criteria are in play.


Those who have lived successfully are those who have lived selflessly, who have lived for others, who have lived mercifully, incorporating small or large acts of kindness in their daily lives, those who have fed the stranger, visited the prisoner, reached out to those in need of help. Those who have acted rather like the good Samaritan, seeing where help was needed and responding. These are the things that have eternal value, not wealth, not power, not public recognition. These are the definition of a successful life.

In the end all the trapping of success mean little, compared with living a life where love has been shown. Loving others does not always make for an easy life, loving others may require sacrifice, it is not the quickest way up the greasy pole and people may well take advantage. Loving others does not even guarantee a happy life, although we may find ourselves surprised how often thinking of others bring its own unique kind of joy. Yet a life of loving others is what God understands a successful life to look like.

This passage is clearly speaking about loving and serving people. I will insult neither your intelligence nor the author's intent by somehow suggesting that a difference between the Sheep and the Goats is how they treat the natural world. Although practicing love towards people tends to make people loving towards the rest of creation and caring for the natural world tends to make people loving towards people, because practicing love is practicing love and compassionate people tend to be inclusive rather than exclusive in their compassion.

In our world however, caring for people, for the sick, feeding the hungry, giving the thirst water does have an ecological aspect to it. We know that environmental harms fall on the most vulnerable.We know people are being made ill by air pollution and toxic dumpts. We know that droughts and degraded soils cause human hardship, we know that wars have ecological aspects and we know thing will only get worse until enough people say enough is enough. 

So against this background and in the light of this passage, I urge you to consider afresh what does a successful life might look like?

Matthew 25:14-30

At first glance, this week’s Gospel seems to have many connections with our “Green” agenda. After all, this parable is one of the sources for the idea of the “Stewardship of Creation”. Human beings are seen as “stewards” who have been entrusted by God with the natural world, which we hold in trust for him. We are to look after it/use it wisely and one day we will be held accountable to God for it.

So far, so good! Except…I have a few problems, firstly, I don’t think stewardship is the best model to describe the relationship between human beings and the rest of creation, but it is a great improvement on exploitative and abusive attitudes and I am certain that we are indeed accountable to God for our treatment of his gift of the natural world. More importantly though, the traditional interpretation of the parable of the talents presents a very uncomfortable view of God. It's not easy to understand the master as God, because he's not a very pleasant character. He has slaves, and and no matter what your translation says, make no mistake about it, the Greek means slave. He's either a thief or at the very least exploitative and greedy, why does he reap where he does not sow and gather what he does not scatter? What happens to those who did reap and did sow - do they see any benefit? The description of him reminds me of those multi-nationals who make billions yet avoid paying tax, and as if that isn't enough he casts his slave into outer darkness.

Such a master-god would hardly be good news for anyone. He would be a tyrant. Can this master who suggests lending at interest possibly be equated with the God who commanded in Deuteronomy 23:19-20

You shall not change interest on loans to your brother, interest on money, interest on food, interest on anything that is lent for interest. You may charge a foreigner interest, but you may not charge your brother interest?

Can this master who takes from those with least and gives to those with most possibly be equated with the God who has a preferential option for the poor?

Can this master who owns slaves really be equated with the God who led the slaves from Egypt to freedom in the promised land?

It is possible then, that we have misunderstood this parable? Perhaps it is not about using wisely that which God has given to us at all, but rather about what happens when people stand up to the systems that create inequality, or when slaves stand up to their masters, or how in an unfair world those who have get more and those who start with little so often lose even that.

In our use capital-to-make-capital society, it is easy to see the first two slaves as the virtuous ones and the third as lazy, but what if the real hero is the slave who stands up against the master’s bullying and dares to incur his master’s displeasure by doing the right thing. If this is the case then this parable is not a great model for creation care, but instead becomes a critique of a world where those who already have a great deal get even more, whilst those who don’t have much get even that taken from them, which seems to be an accurate description of the world in which we live today. A world where the constant accumulation of possessions on the part of those who already have, has devastating environmental consequences for who have so very little.

In 2010 Gary Gardiner issued the following challenge to Christians, especially those of the “Green” persuasion.

"Many religions are in fact rapidly embracing the modern cause of environmental protection. Yet consumerism- the opposite side of the environmental coin and traditionally an area of religious strength- has received relatively little attention so far. Ironically, the greatest contribution the world’s religions could make to the sustainability challenge may be to take seriously their own ancient wisdom on materialism. Their special gift – the millennia old paradoxical insight that happiness is found in self-emptying, that satisfaction is found more in relationship than in things, and that simplicity can lead to a fuller life – is urgently needed today. Combined with the new-found passion of many religions for healing the environment, this ancient wisdom could help create new and sustainable civilizations."

Is it too challenging to imagine that the demands of the ecological emergency require us to be like the third slave and resist the demands of ever-increasing economic growth? And if not, do we have sufficient courage to face the cost of doing so?


I am indebted to Anthony Reddie for his reflections on this parable from the perspective of Participatory Balck Theology. Those who wish to hear these reflections will find them here.




I must confess I would be most surprised if someone chose Remembrance Sunday of all Sundays to preach about the Christian’s relationship with the environment. Remembrance Sunday is rightly about remembering with gratitude those who have fought and for peace and security and those who still serve. I have said before on this blog, my aim is not to turn our emphasis away from the right and proper focus of any given Sunday, but rather to integrate a “green” perspective into our preaching and worship. This is not to say that there are not things that can be said. Firstly, it is intriguing to note the origin of the Remembrance Poppy. The poppies which grew on the battle field after the battle was done showing the resilience of nature, allowing something beautiful to emerge from the carnage of war, offers an analogy for the hope of peace. Those who have experienced war would be the first to tell us that war is hell, a last resort, a failure on the part of the international community. So Remembrance is not only about remembering but about casting a vision for peace, and praying for that. There is an ecological element to peace. The worse that the ecological crisis becomes, the more potential it brings for unrest and war. Indeed, analysing present conflicts through an ecological lens, shows that even now, the struggle for scarce recourses, not only oil, but water, and land is a root cause of many tensions.If we want peace, we need to get to grips with the ecological crisis.  It may also be worth noting, that the image of God’s peace, his shalom, is expressed not only in harmony between humanity and God and amid humanity itself, but as harmony throughout the whole created order.

The wolf will live with the lamb, the leopard will lie down with the goat, the calf and the lion and the yearling together; and a little child will lead them. The cow will feed with the bear, their young will lie down together, and lion will eat straw like the ox. The infant will play near the cobra’s den, and the young child will put its hand into the viper’s nest. They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, for the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. Isaiah 11 6-9 (NRSV)

As we remember, let us pray for and work for peace. 

Matthew 22:34-46

If only Jesus had summarised the law by saying "love God, love your neighbour and love the Earth", persuading people to prioritise the ecological strands of discipleship and mission would be so much easier, but as we seek love God and our neighbour we may discover that caring for and safeguarding the created order is at the very heart of what we are trying to do.

If, as some eco-theologians suggest the Earth, is “the Body of God”, then in loving the Earth we are literally loving God. Yet it is not necessary to adopt this novel premise to see how protecting the Earth can express our love for God. Loving God means seeking him and worshipping him, longing for encounter with the divine, and setting aside time to listen for that still small voice. It involves learning and growing, praise and thankfulness. For many, time in the natural world facilitates this - creation speaks powerfully of the creator and provokes awe, wonder and praise. The natural world can be considered a gift; one which speaks profoundly of the giver, and if it is a gift then treating it with respect and tenderness, indeed treasuring it, would seem to be a way of honouring the giver.

Caring for the Earth is also a way of loving our neighbour as ourselves. We might consider extending the idea of neighbour to include species threatened by extinction or animals farmed in ways which deny them the quality of life which God surely intended for them, but even if we restrict our understanding of neighbour to our fellow humans, we find ample motivation for engaging in environmental activism. I would argue that we must never let our zeal in challenging the exploitation of the natural world blind us to the exploitation of people - they are two sides of the same coin.

Parts of the world are already experiencing the devastating effects of climate change, resulting in failed harvests and misplaced peoples. Whilst even in this country mental health is being affected by lack of access to green space and inhaler usage is soaring due to poor air quality in some of our cities.I wonder too, if we should consider those as yet unborn as our neighbours. What kind of world are we bequeathing to them? Some of the consequences of our actions, whether damaging or healing will not be seen in our lifetimes, but does this mean that we should not consider them ethically important? Those working towards social justice will discover that this is not possible without ecological justice. The impacts of the ecological crisis fall on the most vulnerable and the intersections with racism and sexism are manifold. 

Although there is no mention of nature within this week’s Gospel. I would suggest that it is one of the most “Green” passages in the whole of scripture. If we need a justification for living sustainably, campaigning for action on climate change, or bringing the carbon footprint of our Churches down to zero – we find it here - in loving God and loving our neighbour as ourselves.

Sunday 18th October 2020 : St. Luke the Evangelist Isaiah 35.3-6 or Acts 16. 6-12a Psalm 147. 1-7 2 Timothy 4. 5-17 Luke 10.1-9

Quote from the BBC News broadcast 14.10.2020: The UK is "three weeks behind" where it would have been in its battle with coronavirus because the government did not take on advice to enforce a "circuit break lockdown", a member of the government's Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (Sage) has told ITV News. Thus spake the TV reporter last night on my screen. Throughout the Bible, people always took much more notice of the prophets than the biblical scholars! Although Elijah no longer haunts our caves and communities, his spirit is indeed still with us in the prophets of today.

From gospel times Jesus Christ has been acknowledged as the Saviour. Yet the message of salvation, while remaining constant for Christianity, must be continually translated into the contemporary context. Traditional approaches to salvation focused on salvation through the death of Jesus but actually said little about the saving powers of his life and resurrection. Similarly, and to the point here, salvation often focused on souls or spirits, and did not deal sufficiently with the physical and material, the things of ‘ this world’. Traditionally our sermons deal with such areas as faith, good works and the church, but said little about the political, social and ecological dimensions of salvation.

If salvation is to regain centrality in the Christian tradition, it will have to broaden its scope beyond private salvation and address the pressing issues of public life. ‘ People want to know how they can be saved from violence, nuclear threat, economic insecurity, oppression, and environmental hazards’. So let’s begin to address some of these issues, while remaining firmly grounded in our biblical traditions.

This Sunday in October is traditionally the feast day of Luke the Evangelist. One of the four gospel writers, Luke has a reputation for being a Gentile ( not a Jew) who was not an eye witness of Jesus’ life, but gathered the best information he could find to write his gospel. The story of the Acts of the Apostles are also attributed to his authorship. He is also believed to have been a doctor, or at least of the medical profession. We might guess that the skill of healing was his; and that he recognised the needs for mental as well as physical healing. His gospel stories reflect Jesus’ constant efforts to bring salvation to all people. He saved the sick from mental and physical despair. He rescued the disabled from isolation and rejection. God’s desire that creation be whole and that all be saved was shown in Jesus.

When we apply this to the task in hand today, there are at least three norms for the healing of the earth: sustainability; the common good and solidarity. Let’s unpack these a little. Sustainability is usually defined as development ‘that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Renewable clean energy is probably the most obvious example of sustainability. We need and give thanks for the sun, the wind and the waves which enable the flourishing of the whole community of life on earth. We work towards developing the production of sustainable energy and reducing our dependency on the fossil fuels which cause so much air pollution and illness. Secondly, the common good: we have seen during lockdown and the pandemic context, a renewed sense of a wider awareness of all our neighbours, both near and far; and the need for all, especially the weak and vulnerable to get their fair share. We richer places and countries must stop our wasteful and sometimes thoughtless lifestyles, and look to greater sharing of what we have. Thirdly, solidarity, which calls for a strong vibrant community, with commitment and fidelity. We have seen recently how a renewed sense of community spirit and care has blossomed in many truly inspiring ways. Let’s hope this focus on care and community lasts after this pandemic situation draws to a close.

Our radio news and tv programmes also focus on a need to find the finance to sustain our businesses and families during the economic downturn. Where will the money come from? Much political wrangling on this issue! There’s no doubt, the answer is - from our own pockets – and indeed the greatest resistance to change comes from the richest and most powerful people, corporations and nations. We in the churches are asked to respond with a prophetic word, pastoral concern and support for the actions of our members. Humankind, us, is blessed with understanding, imagination and memory. We ask that God shows us how to learn from past mistakes and plan for the future creatively and responsibly. Amen.

Season of Creation 2020 Sunday 4th October Stewardship and Care for our Common Home

Exodus 20.1-4,7-9,12-20 Psalm 19 Philippians 3.4b-14 Matthew 21.33-46 

This week’s gospel is the third of a trilogy of vineyard parables, and Jesus is speaking to the chief priests and elders of the people, with a few home truths as to land management in Galilee. Jesus could be very down to earth at times.

Those studying law today will recognise’ landlord and tenant’ as a part of their work. So here we are , studying the land law of 2000 years earlier. Apparently in Galilee, absentee landlords were a common practice as today. The story changes a little from here. Sometimes these biblical landlords would rent the land to tenant farmers, who then worked the land and were recompensed by a certain ( often meagre) percentage of the crop’s return. At harvest time the owner’s agents would be sent to collect his dues. The vineyard of Jesus’ parable has been created by the landowner God who planted it, built a winepress in it to crush the grapes and a watchtower to guard it. As we follow from week to week, we continue to recognise the vineyard as Israel , and those who were sent to collect the fruit of the harvest as the prophets who were mistreated and abused. Finally, the landowner’s son is sent with full authority of his Father, only to be killed by the tenant farmers.


But the vineyard is not destroyed, only those who fail in their stewardship of God’s precious possession are punished. Well, here is a key issue for our season of creation theme. The vineyard is not destroyed, planet earth is not destroyed, (yet). We who have failed in our stewardship are punished for our poor management, and suffer environmental degradation and pollution. ** The parable stresses the need to bear fruit, which means here productive , life-giving behaviour which results from the conversion to kingdom living. Creation care is the issue. This parable offers a warning to those who are unproductive and bear no fruit, especially at vintage time when the Son of Man comes to claim the harvest of our lives.

This week also celebrates the life of St. Francis of Assisi, well known for his love of the environment, the creation; his love of animals, and his recognition of the relational brotherhood and sisterhood of the natural elements of God’s world. St. Francis of Assisi is held up as an ‘ example … of a relational , integral ecology lived joyfully’. In the Canticle of the Sun he gives God thanks for Brother Sun, Sister Moon, Brother Wind, Water, Fire, and Earth, all of which he sees as rendering praise to God. He made friends with a wolf and preached to the birds. St Frances is the patron saint ‘ of all who study and work in the area of ecology’. Perhaps the most well-known saint of all, his care for all of creation was a turning point in the understanding of God’s world.

We have come to the end of the Season of Creation, which runs from the 1st September until the 4th October each year. The global celebration began in 1989 with the Ecumenical Patriarch’s recognition of the Day of Creation on 1st September, and is now spread throughout the global ecumenical community. Faith leaders everywhere invite us all to join together for the Season of Creation. The theme for the Season of Creation 2020 was A Jubilee for the Earth. It is based biblically on the idea of Jubilee which we find in Leviticus. The year of Jubilee, according to biblical regulations, had a special impact on the ownership and management of the land. We all have the responsibility for the pastoral care of the earth, with the land around us – be it rural or urban.

Jubilee itself mean ‘ a ram’s horn’. It was blown to mark the start of a time of universal redemption. The year of Jubilee involved release from indebtedness, when injustices of the past fifty years were to be restored. It was also a time for rest for the land.

We can keep Jubilee, today, by having a rest from our busy lives; and take time to ‘ stand and stare’ as the poem says. It’s also the autumn season, Keats’s season of ‘ mists and mellow fruitfulness’. I have just picked apples and plums from my espalier trees spreading their branches on the garden fence. The symbol for the season of creation is usually a tree with green leaves, and brown roots spiralling down into the earth. We are reminded of the verse from the Book of Revelations, where ‘ the leaves of the trees are for the healing of the nations’. Green leaves are the lungs of the earth; photosynthesis provides the clean air we breathe. And the most spectacular autumnal event is always the falling of these leaves, in glorious technicolour as they drift to the earth, crisp and beautiful in design. As they rot, these same leaves feed the earth.

As our world stumbles on the brink of ecological collapse, we are on the ‘tipping point’ of irreversible climate change. This may sound dramatic, but there is an element of truth in impending ‘eco-collapse’,( it Is a new word- really). The question is, ‘How we can live on this planet in a sustainable way while preserving its wonderful diversity, its biodiversity, and maintaining healthy, just, and lively communities, here where we live.’ Creationtide provides an opportunity to recognise our common home, shared with peoples across the earth, of all races and nations, beliefs and creeds. We can still change things for the better; we have at least some freedom to make choices.

Christine Jack: Reader-trained and with degrees in Education and Theology, Anglican member of the Church of England, with active membership of local and national environmental and ecumenical groups, and experience of working as a licensed minister with the church overseas in Sri Lanka.

Season of Creation 2020 Sunday 27th September

Ezekiel 18. 1-4,25-32 Psalm 25. 1-9 Philippians 2. 1-13 Matthew 21. 23-32

By what authority do we come? The question of Christ’s authority to teach is the focus in this week’s gospel reading, as Jesus wrestles with the chief priests and elders’ somewhat fossilised understanding of the Scriptures in an attempt to renew the life of the Jerusalem temple. No wonder his authority is questioned by the status quo. Jesus as usual refuses to give a straight answer – the question of his ‘authority’ is obviously tied up with the question of his identity. Is he just a ‘poor boy, from a poor family’, to quote the words of a popular song; or is he the Son of God, doing the will of his Father in Heaven? Jesus is quite firm, if people cannot see his’ meaning from his actions, the fault is their own. Jesus draws too from the example of the early ministry of John the Baptist; John the Baptist who left his synagogue community to preach along the banks of the Jordan. Many questioned his authority also. But Jesus stepped down humbly, towards John, emptying himself, humbling himself, and asked that he too should be baptized in the river. As John did so, the Holy Spirit descended in the form of a dove. A very simple action affirmed from above. When I began lay ministry many years ago, neither licensed nor ordained but part of an active parish team, building baptismal and family groups, I felt uncomfortable and asked the Vicar this question? By what authority do I come?’ , almost unconsciously following the very questions asked biblically here. The answer which I received at the time was: ‘ By the authority of your baptism’. Ever since then, the ministry of John the Baptist seemed to take on a new light. Baptism gives us all, lay, or ordained, the authority to be witnesses for the gospel of good news, to be ambassadors for the life of Christ. No more wavering at the gate of the vineyard, we must go and work that vineyard today; it is God’s will working in us. There’s no need to shout about it; just to quietly get on with it. So much never changes. What does change is both what we do, and the way we might do it. How do the Scriptures, written two to three thousand years ago, relate to our lives and our lifestyle in today’s world. 

What does Scripture say in the face of concern over our human and planetary well-being? Of environmental destruction on an unprecedented scale, bringing about the sixth great extinction, with over 50% of species threatened? What does Scripture say about mounting mountains of plastic, entering our food chain and poisoning both the natural environment and people?

With global warming bringing about climate disruption, change in weather patterns, increased weather extremes with droughts, floods, hurricanes and cyclones reaching new levels of intensity, what does Scripture say? With deforestation bringing about the destruction of the lungs of the planet, with marine stocks plummeting and the very future of life at stake, can we find the wisdom and guidance needed from our Scriptures?** The good news is that we are a people who always have hope, and a firm resolve for the flourishing of humankind and our common home. Genesis affirms this; the psalms of praise and beauty affirm this. Our harvest festivals affirm this, as we gather the fruitfulness around us and give thanks and praise to God the Creator, and to our farmers, all across the world, for the food on our table. We, as God’s people, remember those less fortunate; and help to replenish the larders of the homeless and destitute on our streets. 

Jesus’ teaching continually urges his hearers to allow the boundaries of their thinking to be challenged and extended. Forty percent of food is wasted every day while two and a half billion people go hungry. We must think about our life style and commit to reducing food waste. Campaign for the end of all plastic packaging and advocate for responsible, returnable containers. Insist on sustainable fishing practices. Advocate for the end of fossil fuels. Can we be given all the energy we need through renewable energy resources. It is blowing in the wind and shining on us daily. Are we open to being surprised by God, and to hear his call for today in the world around us? These are the questions – and we must learn to live them as we travel towards the answers. Amen.

Christine Jack: Reader-trained and with degrees in Education and Theology, Anglican member of the Church of England, with active membership of local and national environmental and ecumenical groups, and experience of working as a licensed minister with the church overseas in Sri Lanka.

Season of Creation 2020 Sunday 20th September: week three.

. Exodus 16.2-15 Psalm 105.1-6,37-45* Philippians 1.21-30 Matthew 20.1-16

In the Gospel today, the kingdom of heaven is compared to a person; a landowner in fact so a person of means and substance, who owned a vineyard.

I don’t know about you, but for me the idea of a vineyard conjures up a warm sunny place, rows of vines standing tall, and workers moving about the field, collecting the ripe grapes. The workers might be local people, called out for the harvest, or migrants, cheap labour brought in from other countries, to work the fields at harvest time. There are a couple of vineyards in the UK, down in Devon or Cornwall, I think, maybe Somerset. These being the warmer areas of Great Britain. So maybe European holidays in France, Italy or Germany come more readily to mind; travelling the dusty roads by car on the way to the coast.

But let’s get down to the basics, the nitty-gritty. The landowner sets his task force to work, having agreed with his labourers the usual daily wage. He goes back later in the day, and notices other workers loafing about with their hands in their pockets. Why are you just standing around , he asks? Because no-one has employed us, they answer. So the landowner takes them on. He did this three times during the day, employing more workers each time, and paying all the same wage.

Then we hear the grumbling of the workers, as they question the sense of fairness, of justice, in paying the last workers the same as the first. This demand for fair wages comes years before the emergence of trade unions. Look at the last group of workers, the ones no-one had employed. We might wonder why no-one wants to employ them. Are they unkempt, disabled, blind, known to be lazy? Is this landowner really employing the unemployable?

Is the landowner actually standing in for God, is there to be no favouritism at this work place? Do the disciples have to learn that bringing in the kingdom of heaven will not make them rich or powerful; that God does not make contracts or bargains, he makes covenants.

This is a parable which has puzzled many. It may have resonances in Matthew’s gospel of his predominantly Jewish community, the well-established Jewish- Christian community and their well-established traditions, into which Matthew draws the somewhat unwanted Gentiles. Much grumbling! There is a lot of grumbling too in the passage from Exodus. We read that in the desert the Hebrew people grumbled against Moses and Aaron. “Did you bring us out of Egypt only to have us starve to death in the desert?” (This is just one of many grumblings that will happen on the way to the Promised land. They also grumble about there being no water, about Moses marrying a foreigner, about the leadership of Moses and Aaron.) In response, God gives them manna and quail. 

The vineyard became something of a romantic image during the American Civil War and expansion of the West, memorialised in the famous text by Julia Ward Howe in the first verse of Battle Hymn of the Republic; ..‘My eyes have seen the glory of the Lord, he is trampling out the vineyard where the grapes of wrath are stored’. The full verse reflects Isaiah 63, passages in the Apocalypse and other verses feeding the ‘ winepress tradition’, and itself reflected in John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel, The Grapes of Wrath. Working new territory was no easy matter.

For us today, it might simply be a lesson of inclusion. Are there any other groups which we must learn to accept and welcome, such as the poor, the homeless, the sick and the disabled. What changes might we have to make to accommodate those with differences in our congregations?

Sometimes only God’s generous love can span the distance of difference with forgiveness and love. Like the disgruntled and grumbling labourers in the parable, we are often inclined to look at life from our own limited perspective, so that ‘ What’s in it for me?’ may be our uppermost concern. Apparently our main weaknesses as people generally are selfishness, greed and apathy, according to recent surveys. Paul’s confidence in God, and his faith in the expansive generosity of God in Christ, witness to the truth that God’s ways and dreams can surpass the limits of our human reason and understanding. His plans are for the salvation of the whole world. 

Often, we too, can fail to grasp the full extent of God's grace and mercy. This passage prompts us then, to consider whether our own view of salvation is too narrow. Who are those who we consider outside the scheme of salvation, unworthy, or unimportant, too different from ourselves to matter? Who do we consider beneath our notice or unworthy of our respect? Is God challenging us to tackle our biases?

Inclusion involves listening to and incorporating the voice of the marginalised and oppressed into theology and praxis. As we finally recognise the extent to which humanity has oppressed the Earth and marginalised the needs of those with whom we share the planet, is it not time to widen our circle, not only to include those people who differ from or disagree with us, but other species, eco-systems and indeed creation itself? That would be a truly radical inclusion ‘The earth is the Lord’s and all that is in it’ says Psalm 24, and that includes the small patch of ground upon which our church is built, and the places in which we walk.

This week's Greening the Lectionary is written by Christine Jack: Reader-trained and with degrees in Education and Theology, Anglican member of the Church of England, with active membership of local and national environmental and ecumenical groups, and experience of working as a licensed minister with the church overseas in Sri Lanka.

Season of Creation 2020 Sunday 13th September: week two.

Exodus 14. 19 -31 Psalm 114 Romans 14. 1-12 Matthew 18. 21 -35

As the new communities of the good news Gospel began to establish the parameters of their lives , Peter raised the question of sin and forgiveness. We as church communities know that God expects a forgiving compassionate nature. Peter as a prominent member of Jesus’s discipleship group, was well aware of this. Now that we are living in the new community of Jesus Christ, in how often can we go on forgiving someone for their wrongdoings? Is there to be a limit on our tolerance of their behaviour.

For a long time the Church has focussed on individual sins, particularly sexual sins. And yet our lifestyle is destroying the web of life and hurting the most vulnerable of society.

The Patriarch of the Orthodox church says this: “We have traditionally regarded sin as being merely what people do to other people. Yet, for human beings to destroy the biological diversity in God’s creation; for human beings to degrade the integrity of the earth by contributing to climate change, by stripping the earth of its natural forests or destroying its wetlands; for human beings to contaminate the earth’s waters, land and air – all of these are sins.” ( The Orthodox Church recognised the importance of creation very early on).

Peter’s question is answered by a parable, one of Jesus’ teaching stories. Jesus tells us a rather complicated parable in three parts. AT the end, Jesus likens membership in the kingdom of heaven to the expectation that is at the heart of the parable; namely that forgiveness received from a loving compassionate God is the basis for forgiveness offered in return to others. There can be dire consequences if this expectation is not met. Jesus takes up the challenge with his usual generosity of spirit, and suggests forgiveness, not once, not twice, ‘ Not seven times but I tell you, seventy times seven’.

How do we love our neighbour in the current ecological crisis? For too long the churches theology, preaching and ministry has been involved in ‘ambulance work’, seeking to heal the damage done by neglect and lack of environmental care. We know that we must care for those made hungry, poor or homeless by environmental neglect. But the question today is “how do we stop this happening in the first place?” How do we establish justice and equity for people and all of life? There is enough on this planet for our needs, but not enough for our greed.

The destruction of planetary life is not God’s will.

This may seem far removed from the biblical parable, but the real challenge is to live with our neighbours who own two or three cars, or fly across the world for weekend breaks, who still litter our streets, or keep the lights burning in every room of house, for example, and forgive. Forgiveness is a personal demand of discipleship of Jesus. Carping gets us nowhere. Only by persistently living our vision, with the love God asks of us, and at both a personal and governmental level can we change things. We can shop sustainably, use public transport and volunteer to serve on our school or local council, as well as in our churches, for example, and encourage a greener attitude to our foods, the way we travel, the energy we use to light and heat our homes, and our school or council buildings.

As Paul says, we must welcome those who are weak in the faith. His remarks about vegetarianism need some comment. With a contemporary understanding of food content and food values, vegetarianism in itself is no longer a sign of weakness. However, some Christian groups do take a literal interpretation of the Biblical prophecies of universal vegetarianism (Genesis 1:29–1:31, Isaiah 11:6–11:9, Isaiah 65:25)and encourage vegetarianism as preferred lifestyles. Animals are of value in themselves, we love them as pets; or respect them as part of God’s greater creation. In the 21st century it is certainly considered ethical to eat less red meat. A balanced diet of meat, fish and vegetarian foods seems sensible. God welcomes all: we live not for ourselves but for the Lord and respect his creation and care for it.


Christine Jack: Reader-trained and with degrees in Education and Theology, Anglican member of the Church of England, with active membership of local and national environmental and ecumenical groups, and experience of working as a licensed minister with the church overseas in Sri Lanka.

Matthew 15: (10-20), 21-28

This week's Gospel is a shocking one which presents Jesus in a less than favourable light. He says something utterly unpleasant, which is made all the more stark in the light of the his observations that what is spoken reveals the content of the heart. A desperate woman approaches him for help. She does so respectfully and accords him the honour of recognising him as “Lord, Son of David”; she kneels before him. Yet Jesus’ initial response is not only to dismiss her pleading but to insult her. Why? Because she is not Jewish, she is Canaanite, and Jesus understands his focus to be to the Jews. His refusal to help on this basis is disquieting enough, but his reference to giving children’s bread to the “the dogs” makes things worse. “Dogs” was a pejorative way Jews referred to non-Jews.

This incident, more than any other in scripture, shows Jesus as a human being. Jesus, like all human beings, is part of a culture which influences how he thinks and understands the world. His culture was different from our own, but the influence of upbringing, peer pressure and societal norms means that Jesus, like all of us, has blind spots, failures of empathy, and prejudices. Yet these do not remain unquestioned, Jesus' encounter with the woman and her unexpected faith and wit, challenges him to reassess his initial response and he not only heals her daughter but publicly praises her. The encounter changes him and causes him to think differently. Thankfully he is sufficiently humble to allow this to happen. 


All of us to a greater or lesser extent buy into the world as it is. We are all enmeshed in unjust structures that we simply accept unquestioningly. Before we stand in judgement on Jesus for this incident, we could do worse than look to our own assumptions. Where are our blind spots? Can we really say that we consider all lives to be of equal value, when one in four people don’t have access to a toilet and one in ten don’t have clean water close to their homes, or when we demonise those who leave their countries in search of a better life, or when WHO predictions suggest that climate change is expected to cause between an estimated 250,000 deaths per year from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and heat stress between 2030 and 2050. Do we imagine these people to be disposable, irrelevant or merely the collateral damage that enable us to carry on living as we are? What aspects of our culture have we unconsciously accepted as the way things have to be even though they run contrary to human and ecological flourishing?

So often it is dialogue and encounter which cause a change of heart. Thus, it is important to seek out and listen to people who are different to us, or who have another perspective. My passion for ‘Green’ issues arose, in part, from listening to Archbishops from the Anglican Communion describing how climate change was already affecting their provinces in frightening and destructive ways. The fact that for them ecological disaster was a present reality rather than a future possibility spurred me to action.

If we find ourselves reading this Gospel passage and  expecting better from Jesus, then we must also expect better from ourselves and be sufficiently open to the experiences of others, to learn, to change our mind and acknowledge our own shortsightedness. Then in humility, to think and to act differently.

Matthew 14.22-33

Working with God for peace, justice and the integrity of creation will inevitably challenge us and push us beyond the safety of what we know and necessitate new appraoches. We might need to speak out on behalf of the poor and vulnerable or stand up to bullying or abuse. We may need to take a lead in community organising or assume greater responsibility in our churches. We may need to challenge others, or publicly protest, or engage with people who make us uncomfortable. We may need to look to ourselves, make lifestyle changes or even  re-evaluate our faith and cherished beliefs.

So often though, we are stopped by fear. What if we fail? What if we get it all wrong? Such fear is the enemy of faith. In this week’s Gospel it is fear that causes Peter to sink, as his attempt to walk on water like Jesus comes to a splashy end. Peter’s fear was misplaced for Jesus was with him and he comes to no harm. As Peter discovers the commandment “do not be afraid”, although the most frequent in the whole of scripture, is one of the most difficult to keep.

As we can read this week’s Gospel we have a choice, we can see Peter a failure, someone who didn’t have enough faith, someone who was distracted from his goal and couldn’t see it through, or we can see someone rather like ourselves who combines faith with fear, and trust with doubt; who gets things wrong and gets forgiven. We can see Peter as someone who trusted Jesus enough to get out of the safety of the boat and attempt to walk on water.

Admittedly, it would have been wonderful if Peter had kept his focus on Jesus and hadn’t got frightened by the wind. It would have been great if Peter had managed to make it all the way and yes, there probably is a lesson in there for us about keeping our eyes fixed on Jesus. But was what happened such a disaster?  There is no real danger. Jesus responds to his cries for help immediately. Peter is not left floundering around in the water. Jesus rescues him and no harm is done other than to Peter's pride.I can imagine Jesus laughing as he rebukes him for having “little faith” because after all, the incident is quite humorous.

Learning to trust Jesus, learning not to be afraid, will involve us facing our fears, not once or twice, but over and over again. It will involve us stepping up, taking responsibility and trying new things. As we do so we will encounter success and failure but Jesus will be with us regardless. There are many things in this world to be afraid of, but in the Christian life failure is not one of them. After all forgiveness is its stock in trade. It is always easier to stay in our comfort zones , but if we are to change and grow, and make no mistake about it - Christianity is about changing and growing - then we need to push ourselves to meet new challenges, however stretching they may be and we need to stop worrying about whether we can walk on water –  and just be brave enough to get out of the boat.

Isaiah 55 1-5 Matthew 14. 13-21,

You give them something to eat.

This week's readings from Isaiah and Matthew's Gospel speak of the abundant provision of God. Isaiah tells of God quenching people's thirst with water, wine and milk, available to be purchased without money. Of course, the imagery is spiritual, but it's physical too. Can you imagine being thirsty in the Kingdom of God? In Matthew's Gospel scarcity is transformed into excess as the five loaves and two fishes are miraculously able to feed a crowd which was probably double the five thousand men noted once the women and children are factored in. Throughout scripture we read of a God who provides, often far in excess of what is necessary and who does not demand payment of any kind. We can see this in the beauty and diversity of the created order, the care of the Hebrews in the desert, the turning of water into wine and the superabundance of his unconditional love.

Yet one look at our world shows us that abundance is not a universal experience, particularly as it relates to food. We have accepted a situation where 815 million people are chronically under-nourished and where the situation is getting progressively worse. Staggeringly, even in UK, the seventh richest country in the world, there are 2 million people who are undernourished, whilst Oxfam and Church Action on Poverty estimate 500,000 are dependent on food parcels. In contrast, the UK throws away between 16 and 18% of all food bought and over all sectors wastes food to the value of £19 billion a year, which is associated with more than 25 million tonnes of greenhouse gas. Somehow, somewhere the system is broken! This is not only a question of the human population exceeding what the earth can sustain, although difficult questions do need to be addressed in this regard, but about the extreme levels of inequality which are the backdrop to the lives we lead.

The situation is complicated. In societies where food is readily available poverty can manifest as obesity; it is often the cheapest food which has the least nutritional value and is packed full of sugar, fat and salt. Attempts to alleviate food poverty by providing cheap food, rather than tackling poverty itself can result in factory farming, the inhumane treatment of animals and lax environmental protections. It isn't as straight forward as some eating less so others can eat more. But can we really accept the 3.1 million child deaths each year that can be attributed to lack of food worldwide, as 'just the way it is'?

When Jesus asked the disciples to feed the crowd it must have seemed as if he were asking the impossible. They didn't have the resources, they didn't have the answers, but they did have the will. They didn't shrug their shoulders, say "there's nothing I can do" and ignore the problem. They looked at what they could do and played their part. It turns out that Jesus can do great things when his followers act. Jesus asked them to take the initiative, but he does not leave them to flounder on their own; the disciples bring Jesus the loaves and fish, they distribute the loaves and fish, they collect up the scraps, but it is Jesus who does the feeding. They are working with Jesus and not on their own. Even so, the levels of trust and faith involved are substantial.

Attempting to build a world where the abundance of God's provision is distributed fairly, rather than hoarded and zealously guarded by those who already have enough is a challenge we may feel ill equipped to meet.  But it is one we do together with God and others of goodwill. Initiatives including foodbanks, food waste cafes, political lobbying, farm standard schemes and global charities working for the eradication of poverty are already playing their part, communicating that the status quo is simply unacceptable. As the miracle of the loaves and fishes shows us, doing something, however small, is always preferable to doing nothing. So, let's give it a try and see what happens. 



Matthew 13:31-33, 44-52

The phrase the Kingdom of God or the Kingdom of Heaven means different things to different people. So before I reflect on this week's Kingdom parables I think it is important to be clear about my understanding. I do not conceive of the Kingdom in terms of the numerical growth of the institutional church, but rather in terms of God's reign of justice and peace, of which the Church, if it is obedient to its Lord will play a significant part. The Kingdom is both now and not yet, announced, or inaugerated, through Jesus' earthly ministry, present wherever justice and peace win out over poverty and despair and brought to fulfilment when Christ returns and Heaven and Earth are recreated. 

This said, what is the Kingdom like? The collection of parables in this week's Gospel gives us some clues. The parable of the mustard seed suggests that the Kingdom will start small, but grow to a substantial size. It seems as if Jesus was anticipating the spread of the Kingdom beyond his immediate hearers. The seeds of the Kingdom that Jesus was sowing through his ministry of teaching and healing would have a far reaching impact. We might say from little acorns mighty oak trees will grow. If we think about this parable in terms of the "now and not yet" of the Kingdom then there is a sense in which we can see the ministry of Jesus as the planting of the seed, the tree where the birds of the air rest, as the fulfilment of the Kingdom and the present as the time when the tree is growing. 


The parable of the yeast also suggests that the reach of the Kingdom will be considerable, but this time idea that the yeast will leaven the lump highlights the ability of a small number of people to have a wide-ranging effect. This is reminiscent of Extinction Rebellion's insistance that if only  only 3.5% of the population engage in protests then change will follow. Since Christians number some 29% of the world population, if we work together then our ability to leaven the lump is substantial. We must never imagine ourselves powerless in the face of evil or injustice or ecological destruction. We have the potential to change the world for the better, but the challenge is whether we have the will. 


The parables of the treasure in the field, and the pearl of great price, remind of of the value of the Kingdom. It is something precious, something worth having, something desirable. It shouldn't be undersold or made cheap. Being part of the Kingdom is not a bind or a burden - it is a joyous experience. These parables also remind us of the all encompassing nature of the Kingdom. It takes priority over everthing else. It's either all or nothing. We can't be half hearted about our membership of the Kingdom of God. Perhaps this is what the next parable, the parable of the net is making explicit. This parable speaks of judgement and accountability - a separation of those who are welcome in the Kingdom and those who are not. If we are conceiving of the Kingdom in terms of justice and peace then those who are content with the status quo,  who resist a more equitable ordering of the world's resources and who seek their own power at the expense of others, clearly would not welcome the Kingdom or be welcome in it. 

The final parable is full of hope, it relates to the relationship between Jesus' new Kingdom teaching and the teaching of the past. There are treasures old and new: the kingdom is build upon that good which has gone before. Yet Jesus brings new insights, a new urgency, and a reorientation. This suggests that the Kingdom, ever old and ever new, is large enough and flexible enough to encompass our contemporary concerns, such as climate change and biodiversity loss, whilst being firmly rooted in such traditions as the Old Testament prophets. Our task is the same as theirs - to challenge injustice, and to work for peace, yet in our 21st Century context neither can be achieved without reorientating our mission and our Kingdom practice in an ecological direction. 




Matthew 13.1-9, 18-23

It's easy to find the "green" in this week's lectionary, as Jesus uses the agrarian imagery of sowing seeds to address some perennial questions: why doesn’t everyone embrace the Gospel with enthusiasm? Why do people seem interested but then take it no further? Why do some apparently keen people give up? The parable gives a simple answer, that sometimes the conditions aren’t right and seeds needs good soil to grow. This will come as something of a relief to those whose efforts to share the Gospel often end in disappointment. They must not blame themselves or imagine that they've let God down. Some people rejecting the Christian message is just par for the course. It’s not our fault - it’s just the way it is. Sow abundantly and stop worrying seems to be the message.

For those of us who find ourselves engaged in a kind of dual evangelism, sowing seeds about Jesus and environmental engagement, the insights of the parable of the sower seem doubly relevant. Sow lots of seeds, and some will bear fruit. But the seed of the Gospel and the seeds of change  are one and the same. Our environmental commitment flows from our Christian one and our Christian faith grows through our environment praxis. I am convinced that explaining faith using ecological ideas, thinking through the implications of the climate crisis for what we believe, asking how our faith speaks into our current difficulties, will prove fruitful both for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour and for helping people to understand and engage with Christianity.


Whilst it would seem self absorbed to use the tragedy of the climate emergency as a hook for evangelism, if Christianity is to be relevant and attractive it must address the issue. If it cannot provide answers to the questions that people are asking then no matter how many seeds we sow, very few will take root. At the same time, Christianity can provide the wisdom, the moral compass and the equipping of the Spirit needed to chart the course required to prevent ecological Armageddon. The Ecotheologian Ernst Conradie says of the ecological crisis, that when everyone knows what needs to be done, but no-one can summon up the will to do it, then the problem is clearly spiritual. We Christians don't have a monopoly on spiritual resources but we do have plenty to offer. So, let us carry on sowing seeds abundantly, acknowledging that not all will take root, but praying for a fruitful harvest.

Romans 7 15-25a

How familiar Paul’s lament “ I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate” seems. Anyone who has tried to lose weight, take up an exercise regime, or commit to a schedule of daily Bible reading knows this feeling well. It is one thing deciding to change, even desiring it with our whole heart, it is another doing the actual changing.

Let’s make no mistake about it when it comes to the climate crisis. Change is required. We, as individuals, as a society and as the human race cannot continue as we are. Someone put it like this, “if current trends continue, we won’t.” Radical changes are needed to prevent global disaster and they need to be happening now. 

For anyone trying to change their personal lifestyle Paul’s experience will be familiar. Trying to build sustainable habits isn’t easy. We may well find ourselves struggling to maintain momentum and fall back into our old ways. Change requires effort and energy on our part that sometimes we just don’t have. New habits and patterns of behaviour don’t become second nature overnight, they need to be practiced. Sometimes we will get it wrong, make mistakes or just simply give in to temptation, but this doesn't mean we should stop trying. 


Paul, like all Christians, stands between the now and the not yet - a world where Jesus is risen but when God’s kingdom has not been realised in all its fullness. What is true for the world is also true for our lives, the Holy Spirit dwells within us, changing us, pushing us to be Christlike, sometimes we feel we are making progress, but at the same time we are imperfect, fallible people who often get things wrong, sometimes very wrong indeed.

Paul’s life changed beyond all measure on the road to Damascus when he met the Lord Jesus Christ. He is now the apostle to the gentiles, founder of churches, bearer of the good news, but he, like all of us, remains a long way from perfect. Perfectionists please note, we can achieve great things without being perfect. Torn between his desire to live the perfect life pleasing to God and his inability to achieve it, Paul might be tempted to despair except he has the assurance of forgiveness in Christ. No wonder he gives thanks to God.

It is often said that the distinctive contribution Christians make to debate around the climate crisis is hope, but I think forgiveness has its place too. People who are constantly guilty are paralysed into inaction. Expecting individuals or ourselves to adopt the perfect ‘green’ lifestyle is unrealistic. Insisting on perfection is a recipe for giving up or not even trying in the first place.

Part of the reason why 'greening' our lifestyles is so difficult is because we live in a society which still remains predicated on fossil fuel usage. This is why for me being 'Green' isn’t all about individual lifestyle but also campaigning for action at governmental and corporate level. We can’t expect perfection from them either, but we should expect something.

As people who so often “do what we don’t want and do the very thing we hate”, we inevitably walk a very fine line between letting ourselves off the hook and beating ourselves up unnecessarily. There are no easy answers, but celebrate our small successes, be patient with ourselves and each other, work together and pray, opening ourselves and our world to the transforming power of the Holy Spirit.

Trinity 2 Matthew 10.24-39

For those seeking a 'green' perspective on the Gospels, Jesus’ comments about sparrows are fascinating. When Jesus says “Do not be afraid, you are of more value than many sparrows” he is clearly suggesting a hierarchy within creation, and that the human creation is more important to God than the non-human. Those who accuse Christianity of anthropocentrism, of focussing on humanity at the expense of other species, will find plenty of ammunition in these few verses. People matter more than animals. This is will come as challenge to those Christian environmentalists who focus solely on animal welfare issues whilst neglecting social justice. However, I confess to rather liking the idea that as a person I’m more valuable than a sparrow. I’ll leave it up to you to judge whether that’s my arrogance or my common sense talking.

Yet, even the most anthropocentric of us will struggle to use this passage to suggest that the non-human creation doesn’t matter to God - of course it matters to him - after all he made it and he delights in it. Jesus is not saying that sparrows aren’t important to God, in fact, he is suggesting that God values the sparrows far more than people do. God doesn’t ignore them, he doesn’t let their death go unremarked. People may be more valuable to God than other creatures, but that doesn’t mean that other creatures aren’t precious. We can’t read this passage and imagine that God doesn’t know or care when yet another species is rendered extinct or an elephant killed for its ivory, or a lion shot as a trophy. God cares about this and grieves over it.

Nevertheless, the thrust of the passage is not about animal suffering but about human suffering. Specifically, Christians suffering as a consequence of following Jesus. Discipleship is not easy, it may involve persecution, ridicule, physical harm, or painful disagreements with those we love. In the face of this, we may feel God is looking the other way, but the God who knows the number of hairs on our heads and notices the death of a sparrow, remains intimately involved in his creation; we are never alone, never forgotten.

Preachers looking for a green angle might prefer to focus on the costliness of following Jesus, rather than the relative importance of sparrows. Congregations could be urged to pray for those who, even today, are persecuted for their faith, reminded that conversion remains costly even for those who have freedom of religion, (because conversion involves change and change is painful), and asked what costs might be entailed in bearing a faithful witness to the God who values both people and sparrows. 


Sunday 14th June Matthew 9:35-10.8

Much has been written following the death of George Floyd in Minnesota and the fury about the nature of his murder shows no signs of abating. His death has become totemic of the injustices imposed by systemic racism and the fear and indignities that Black people live with on a daily basis, which I, as a white woman can only try to appreciate. There may be those who think that there is no room for addressing such questions of race in what is after all a “Green” blog, but my definition of “Green” has always combined ecological with social justice. Even if this were not the case, racism, and indeed all forms of oppression, are connected with our attitudes towards the planet we share.

The concept of “Environmental Racism” highlights the intersection between ecological devastation and race, as evidenced through such practices as locating hazardous waste dumps near African American neighbourhoods, rather than white ones, or the exporting of waste from developed to developing countries. You may remember Hugh Fearnley Whittingstall, highlighting mountains of UK plastic waste dumped in Malaysa. 

Furthermore, systemic racism, sexism, and other forms of oppression, such as that that experienced by disabled or LGBTI people or those with the simple misfortune to be born poor, stems from the same system which is systematically destroying the ecological balance of the world.

At the beginning of the 21st Century, James Cone, wrote

“The logic that led to segregation in the Americas, colonization and apartheid in Africa, and the rule of white supremacy throughout the world is the same one that leads to the exploitation of animals and the ravaging of nature. It is a mechanistic and instrumental logic that defines everything and everybody in terms of contribution to the development and defence of white world supremacy.... The fight for justice cannot be segregated but must be integrated with the fight for life in all its forms.”

A system which considers environmental devastation and human lives as collateral damage in the relentless pursuit of power and wealth, which zealously guards a status quo that only delivers for the privileged few, that worships the market and somehow expects it to deliver a moral framework, and that pretends life is a meritocracy in the face of fundamentally unequal chances, is a system in need of radical reform. It is a system which has resulted in a serious and sometimes fatal dis-ease in the world. The symptoms are manifold, from species extinction, to mass migration, to human trafficking, to violent and unnecessary deaths. Focussing only on environmental issues in isolation from other issues of justice is merely triage, and does not even begin to offer the possibility of healing.

In this week’s Gospel, we read of Jesus “proclaiming the good news of the kingdom and curing every disease and every sickness” before commissioning the twelve to do the same. Although Jesus‘ society was not faced with problems of climate change, it too, was beset by dis-ease: unequal life chances, the wealth of the many at the expense of the few, life held lightly and death justified as collateral damage to maintain the status quo. The words of Caiphas that it was better one man die than the nation perish, show the human cost of maintaining power bases.

In the face of this, when Jesus healed the sick and diseased, he was showing how much those who society disregarded mattered to God. When Jesus and his disciples preached that “the Kingdom of Heaven has come near” they weren’t preaching about going to Heaven after death, they were preaching another kingdom, an alternative to Rome. They were in effect saying  “Another world is possible”. This was a political message, too challenging for the vested interests to allow. It is a message for which Jesus and many others have died, but the dream of a better world has not. 

That possibility of another world was good news then, and it is good news now, because the world we have, or should I say the system we have, isn’t working. It is the job of Christians to embody this other world, another system, where life is received as a gift from God and valued as such, where the world is seen not as a utility to exploit but as God’s creation, a common home for everyone, and where the suffering of one is the suffering of all - a world where everyone can breathe.


To find out more about environmental racisim click here.

Trinity Sunday/Environmental Sunday by Christine Jack

World Environment Day 5th June is the United Nations day for encouraging worldwide awareness and action to protect our environment. Since it began in 1974, the event has grown to become a global platform for public outreach that is widely celebrated in over 100 countries. This year, 2020, the theme is biodiversity, or the web of life as it is sometimes called. Christians are called to remember our dependence on this web of life through a special Sunday, set apart each year on the Sunday closest to June 5th- Environment Sunday.

Genesis 9. 12-13: ‘12 God said, “This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations: 13 I have set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth.’ The Christian scriptures begin with God’s affirmation that all of creation is ‘very good’ (Genesis 1.30). Humans exist within a web of life. This web is a complex, interconnected system in which each part plays an important role. We are part of a complex, delicate and interdependent web of life which we believe is created, sustained and redeemed by God. Humanity is called to reflect the image of God through godly leadership within the community of fellow creatures (Genesis 1. 26-28). Basic facts about global problems are well known. Few deny that there are serious concerns. There is less agreement, however, about the exact nature of the crisis. Is it essentially political, economic, or technological? Where do the roots of the crisis lie?

Although we understand our human responsibility to care and to act, the problems go beyond managerial failings. They are tied up with our relationship with our surroundings. There is a multitude of interrelated environmental crises, but the essential problem is an inner human crisis. Solutions require a profound shift in people’s feelings and attitudes towards the environment. Biodiversity matters because human wellbeing depends on stable and thriving ecosystems and the services they give us, from clean water and food, to oxygen, clothing and climate regulation and all the other ‘resources’ we use from nature. But if we value nature only for its usefulness to human beings we do not value it highly enough. Our view of nature is distorted. Today human action and behaviour has reduced biodiversity and modified wildlife populations structures at an unprecedented rate. There are multiple causes, from deforestation, habitat destruction, climate change and pollution of soil, water and air, including the tide of plastic pollution filling the oceans. In the last 50 years, the human population has doubled; the global economy has almost quadrupled and global trade has increased approximately ten times (www.worldenvironmentday/global). We are told that it would take 1.6 Earths to meet the demands that humans make on nature each year; and more species are on the risk of extinction than ever before.

In recent years, zoonotic diseases – those transferred from animals to humans – have gained international attention. The recent Covd-19 crisis is one of these. In 2016 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) flagged a worldwide increase in zoonotic epidemics as an issue of concern. Specifically it pointed out that 75% of all emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic and that these are closely linked with the health of ecosystems. Ecosystems are various – woodland, forest, tundra, burning desert, icy polar and city/urban, for example. The solution is nature. Nature purifies the air we breathe, cleans the water we drink and produces the variety of foods we require to stay healthy and resist disease. It helps medical researchers to understand the causes in humans and provides the substance in developing medicines. It also helps to mitigate the impact of climate change by absorbing carbon, reducing air pollution and helping to cool cities.

For Christians too, and those who believe that all God’s creatures have value in themselves, there is also an issue of justice. It is often the poor and the marginalised who depend most immediately on the health of ecosystems and are affected seriously by the loss of productive soils, clean water, forests, fish and coral reefs. Biodiversity loss is a major factor in human migration. In developed and urban areas, again it is often the poorest who suffer the effect of carbon emissions from busy roads and motorways. ‘It’s time to revisit our relationship with nature and to build a more environmentally responsible world. It is time to better understand the web of life in which we live and appreciate that it functions as a whole system. It is time to reimagine our relationship with nature and put nature at the heart of our decision making’.


I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life

At Pentecost we are remembering the coming of the Holy Spirit upon the first disciples and the presence of the Holy Spirit with us now. Although Jesus is known as Emmanuel - God with us, it is a title equally applicable to the Holy Spirit, who we can think of as God-at-work-in-the world, and indeed God-at work-in-us.

The Holy Spirit, challenges, inspires, equips, and leads, sometimes in the most unexpected directions. Like C.S. Lewis’ Aslan, who was not a tame lion, the Holy Spirit cannot be contained or domesticated. Although described as the Comforter, an encounter with the Holy Spirit is often the opposite of comfortable, and biblically the word comfort leans more heavily in the direction of strengthening for service than of pacifying. The Holy Spirit is not a comfort blanket and doesn't appear to be that keen on the status quo.  People are led in directions they would rather not go, and yet are supported and blessed on the journey.

The Holy Spirit is involved in both creation and recreation. She is depicted as hovering over the water in the creation, as a bird hovers and broods over her eggs and giving life to the people created from dust and breathing new life into the dry bones of Ezekiel’s vision. Moving the metaphor from breath to water, the Holy Spirit quenches thirst and turns desert into oasis. New possibilities are suggested as the Holy Spirit causes “visions” and “dreams” of God’s Kingdom and God’s power to act and transform.

The vision that the Holy Spirit gives is one of unity, of diverse languages and cultures in dialogue, communicating and working together to renew the world. A vision of life and not destruction, of prosperity for many and not just the few. It is a vision of healing and wholeness for the whole earth not just people. The vision of the one who is the bringer of life must stand in contrast to the suicide machine which places profit above people and planet.

The one who is at work in the world and at work in us, invites us to join in the prophetic task of bringing Shalom and proclaiming the kingdom. The Holy Spirit chooses not only to work in us, but with us, but how prepared are we to meet the challenge?

Ernst Conradie, suggests that when every-one knows there’s a problem and knows the right thing to do, but no one can summon up the moral will to do it then the problem is a spiritual one. We need to the presence of the Holy Spirit now more than ever, and so we must continue to pray

Come, Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful And kindle in them the fire of your love. Send forth your Spirit and they shall be created And you will renew the face of the earth”.


Following the death of my grandmother, my mother discovered that “only people who have been there can help".  She was only able to receive comfort and consolation from people who had been similarly bereaved and understood her feelings. Those who had not experienced profound bereavement, no matter how well-intentioned, simply didn’t know what she was going through, so how could they possibly help? This speaks to me of the Incarnation. God is someone who is able to help because God understands;  in Jesus, God became human, and experienced the joys and the sorrow of the human condition. Jurgen Moltmann says something similar when he asserts that “Sometimes only the Crucified God will do”.

The Ascension reminds us that a human being stands at the heart of the Godhead. It has always been important to me to think of the ascended Jesus in his human form and frailties, with the wounds from his crucifixion still there. The ascension is a celebration and of victory, where the human Jesus is enthroned at the right hand of God the Father, ruling and reigning alongside him, a judge who has earned his right to judge us by walking a mile in our shoes.

Yet, having written for the last eighteen months. I am struck by just how anthropocentric this all is. It’s all about God saving human beings, it’s about humanity being incorporated into the Godhead, it’s about God understanding what it’s like to be a person.

If we broaden our thinking to include the rest of creation, we lose none of this, whilst rediscovering the idea of a Christ who lifts not only humanity, but the entire world to God. ‘Deep Incarnation’ does not interpret the Word becoming flesh in exclusively human terms but as the Creator entering the Creation. Thus, the crucified God, and the risen ascended one, stand in solidary with and ennoble the whole of the Earth, not just the human part of it. Thus, we can think of Heaven and Earth united in the heart of God.

Thinking this way, may require us to change the way we view the non-human creation; it might challenge the arrogance that sees salvation solely as a human prerogative, and may even cause us to reappraise our most cherished beliefs, but it can only enhance our appreciation of the value of the natural world , the wonder of the incarnation, the triumph of the ascension and the majesty of Christ.

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About the author: Revd Ruth Newton

Ruth is parish priest of St John's Sharow, a Silver Eco-Church, whose award winning Churchyard has been awarded County Wildlife Status.

She is a member of the Church of England General Synod. Ordained for 17 years, Ruth has ministered in three multi-parish benefices, as a Cathedral Canon and as a Lay Training Officer. 

Ruth has a Masters in Theology, a PGCE and an an associate fellowship with the Higher Education Academy. She is undertaking a doctorate in the intersection between environmental activism and church.

Presently working on a portfolio basis she is available for freelance writing, lectures or retreats. 




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